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Imagine Worldwide
Results & Impact

A Substantial Body of Rigorous Evidence

At least nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted on onebillion‘s learning software in different countries, languages, and settings. These RCTs have consistently shown positive and significant learning gains in literacy and numeracy. Learn more in this research summary and in the table at the bottom of the page.

A two-year RCT with children in Malawi showed significant learning impacts in literacy and math despite multiple disruptions due to COVID.

4.2 months

of additional literacy learning after 13 months of disrupted schooling due to COVID


attained emergent or fluent mathematics status after 13 months


Both boys and girls had similarly positive results


more children advanced on national literacy benchmarks

Rigorous Studies of onebillion's Software

Rigorous-Studies-of onebillions-Software_V2@4x

1 Pitchford (2015). Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi. Frontiers in Psychology, 6:485.

2 Pitchford, Hubber, and Chigeda (2017). Unlocking Talent through Technology: Improving Learning Outcomes of Primary School Children in Malawi. Report prepared for Voluntary Service Overseas. Author.

3 Levesque, Bardack, and Chigeda (2020). Technical Report: Tablet-based Learning for Foundational Literacy and Math: An 8-month RCT in Malawi. Imagine Worldwide: Research Brief No. 1.

4 King, Presley, Pouezvara, Gove (2019). Gobal Learning XPrize Impact Presentation (; Levesque and Bardack independent analysis of XPrize data.

5 Levesque, Bardack, Chigeda, and Winiko. Presentation at CIES 2021. Presentation available on request.

6 Pitchford (2021). Implications from a Multi-country Study. Presentation at the 2021 mEducation Symposium.

7 Levesque, Bardack, Chigeda, Bahlibi, and Winiko (2022). Impacts of a 2-year education technology program on early primary learning in Malawi amid disruptions due to COVID-19. Imagine Research Brief No. 1 to be found on Imagine’s website at

8 Levesque, Chigeda, Mgumia, Bardack, Bahlibi, Diazgranados (forthcoming). Details available on request.

9 Ibid.


I like it because the children do not mess around…We are learning how to read and write. I like to learn.

Standard 2 learner

This work is important because the students learn so much more. Retention of students goes up and the dropout rates decrease. Learners are more motivated and more confident about their learning. And this is especially important for the girls — to keep them in school and give them full access to literacy and mathematics.

Head Teacher

Now our kids can say the alphabet and are better at math. The program reduces stress because they come to learn instead of staying at home.

Parent of out-of-school children

I like learning numbers. I like drawing. I like everything. I want more time on the tablet.

Standard 2 Learner

I have seen an improvement in attendance and a decrease in lateness. We are lucky that this intervention is improving attendance.

Head Teacher

Now my child can read some texts meant for [grade] 6 or 7 children because of the program. When he comes home, he teaches other children about reading.

Parent of primary school child

I am learning to read. I like listening and am excited to come to the learning center. My classmates want to be in the program.

Standard 2 Learner

We want the program to continue…there is desire to expand the program to higher [grade levels] so the most kids can benefit.

Parent on the Student Management Committee

In the classroom, learning can be difficult, but in the learning center, it is simpler because [children] can learn at their own pace. Children who are part of the program are able to grasp content more quickly compared to other children who were not part of the program.

Teacher and Learning Center

Looking at what the children are able to do now, they are an example for others in the school.

Chairperson of the Mother’s Group

In the program, you will see that all the children are intelligent. They are their own teachers on the tablets.

Pastor Desire, leader of Integrity School

The innovation has lessened our work because learners are grasping concepts in less time.


We were excited when we first heard about the program because we understand that the world is changing and that this is the future.

Parent on the Student Management Committee